While the economic impact of cannabis legalization is easy to track in terms of tax revenue and job growth, the social impacts require a bit more digging, particularly in relation to long-term trend analysis. Fortunately, the effects of marijuana legalization on society have been analyzed in multiple studies since Colorado and Washington became the first two states in the U.S. to legalize marijuana for adult use in 2012 with recreational sales starting in 2014. That means we already have some data to evaluate and learn from.
Today, 11 states plus the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana and more are expected to do so in the future. So far, the social impact of legalization has been largely the same from state to state. Researchers have discovered that marijuana legalization results in a variety of social benefits related to crime, social justice, safety, law enforcement, public health, education, and youth.
It’s important to note that much of the revenue collected by states from their cannabis programs is allocated for social investments, including things like youth treatment and education, state and local government, environmental restoration, health care, substance abuse prevention, state police, schools, public safety, and more.
Let’s take a closer look at some of the benefits of cannabis legalization based on research and data to get a better understanding of its social impact in the United States.
Crime and Social Justice
Numerous studies as well as law enforcement data have shown that marijuana legalization reduces some types of crime. In fact, arrests and court filings related to marijuana possession, cultivation, and distribution drop significantly after legalization.
As Liberty Vittert, Visiting Assistant Professor in Statistics at Washington University in St. Louis explains, “There is really no doubt that states which allow medical marijuana show absolutely no increase in their violent and non-violent crime statistics. In fact, crime might actually decrease.”
In terms of arrest rates, an October 2018 report from the Colorado Division of Criminal Justice revealed that the number of cannabis arrests dropped by half during the five-year period after legalization from 2012 (12,709 arrests) to 2017 (6,153 arrests). Cannabis possession arrests decreased by more than half during the same time period from 2012 (11,361 arrests) to 2017 (5,154 arrests)
A separate report from the Drug Policy Alliance, From Prohibition to Progress: A Status Report on Marijuana Legalization, found that crime dropped in each state after legalization in a variety of ways:
- Washington State: The number of low-level marijuana court filings dropped by 98% between 2011 and 2015 (marijuana was legalized in 2012).
- Colorado: The number of marijuana-related court filings declined by 81% between 2012 and 2015 (marijuana was legalized in 2012).
- Washington, D.C.: The number of marijuana arrests decreased by 76% from 2013 to 2016, and possession arrests fell by nearly 99% (marijuana was legalized in 2014).
- Oregon: The number of marijuana arrests dropped by 96% from 2013 to 2016 (marijuana was legalized in 2014).
- Alaska: The number of marijuana arrests for possession and sales/manufacturing decreased by 93% from 2013 to 2015 (marijuana was legalized in 2014).
In addition, a 2017 report, Going to Pot? The Impact of Dispensary Closures on Crime, found that marijuana retailers provide more than $30,000 per year in social benefits to communities based solely on the reduction in larcenies.
Some public safety issues are affected when marijuana is legalized. For example, the Drug Policy Alliance study concluded that marijuana legalization did not negatively affect road safety in any states. The researchers found that driving under the influence (DUI) arrests went down in both Colorado and Washington State after legalization.
Furthermore, the Drug Policy Alliance researchers found no correlation between marijuana legalization and crash rates in their study. This corroborates findings published in the Journal of American Public Health Association, which discovered there was not an increase in crash fatalities during the first three years after legalization in Colorado and Washington.
The Colorado Division of Criminal Justice report found similar results. The number of drivers in fatal crashes who were above the legal limit of THC decreased by nearly 33% from 52 in 2016 to 35 in 2017. The number of citations for cannabis-only impairment in Colorado stayed steady between 2014 and 2017 at just 7% of all DUI arrests. According to the report, that’s approximately 350 citations out of nearly 5,000 DUI arrests per year.
The Drug Policy Alliance study reported that the reduced number of arrests that law enforcement agents need to make after marijuana is legalized results in significant savings. In fact, those savings are estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars, which law enforcement can then reallocate to other things, including social investments.
Vittert shares, “FBI data from Colorado and Washington show that crime clearance rates – the number of times that the police solved a crime – increased for both violent and property crimes after legalization.”
However, changing marijuana laws do cause confusion for police officers. In a report compiled by economists at Colorado State University – Pueblo’s Institute of Cannabis Research found that both police and citizens struggle to keep up with the complicated and changing laws, which can cause a variety of problems that could be solved with adequate law enforcement and public education.
Marijuana legalization is linked to lower rates of opioid-related overdoses, death, and harm, which could significantly improve public health during the current “opioid epidemic” environment. The Drug Policy Alliance report explains that it’s not just medical marijuana availability that affects this aspect of public health, but recreational marijuana legalization has an impact as well.
Opioid overdose death rates are almost 25% lower in states with medical marijuana. Furthermore, states with medical marijuana have seen a 23% reduction in opioid dependence or abuse-related hospitalizations and a 15% decrease in opioid treatment admissions.
The Drug Policy Alliance references a separate analysis in Colorado that found after adult-use marijuana became available for retail sale in 2014, opioid overdose deaths declined by 0.7 deaths per month. For decades, the number of opioid overdose deaths in Colorado each year had been rising, but in 2014 (when adult-use marijuana became available), the upward trend started to decline.
Education and Youth
In many states that have legalized marijuana, the Drug Policy Alliance reports that youth marijuana use has remained stable and in line with rates in states that have not legalized marijuana. However, there are some studies that report a decrease in marijuana use by youth under the age of 21 after legalization.
A 2017 study by the National U.S. Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration reported that cannabis use in teens declined in most jurisdictions where adult use marijuana had been legalized and was being regulated. This included Oregon, Washington State, Washington, DC, and Colorado – where the teen use rate of marijuana had dropped to its lowest level in nearly 10 years.
The Colorado Division of Criminal Justice found that the state did not experience an increase in cannabis use among young people after legalization nor did legalization affect graduation rates or dropout rates. In fact, graduation rates increased since 2012 while dropout rates decreased.
It’s important to point out that some researchers believe the decline in marijuana use among teens could be related to increased drug education made available through the state revenue allocations discussed earlier in this article.
The data shows cannabis legalization can have a number of positive social effects, and more will certainly come in the future as additional states consider legalization and begin regulating marijuana. At this time, more research is needed and more social impact metrics need to be tracked and analyzed.
However, the data available so far has been successful in debunking many of the myths that were once touted about how marijuana legalization would increase crime, reduce safety, harm children, and cause more deaths and other harmful health conditions.
As more research is done, the data will continue to break down the stigmas associated with marijuana use and strengthen the legitimacy of the cannabis industry overall.
Originally published 10/1/18. Updated 7/5/19.
Susan Gunelius, Lead Analyst for Cannabiz Media and author of Marijuana Licensing Reference Guide: 2017 Edition, is also President & CEO of KeySplash Creative, Inc., a marketing communications company offering, copywriting, content marketing, email marketing, social media marketing, and strategic branding services. She spent the first half of her 25-year career directing marketing programs for AT&T and HSBC. Today, her clients include household brands like Citigroup, Cox Communications, Intuit, and more as well as small businesses around the world. Susan has written 11 marketing-related books, including the highly popular Content Marketing for Dummies, 30-Minute Social Media Marketing, Kick-ass Copywriting in 10 Easy Steps, The Ultimate Guide to Email Marketing, and she is a popular marketing and branding keynote speaker. She is also a Certified Career Coach and Founder and Editor in Chief of Women on Business, an award-winning blog for business women. Susan holds a B.S. in marketing and an M.B.A in management and strategy.